Missouri Academy of Science
Approved April 2015
Sec. 1. Name. The name of this organization shall be the Missouri Academy of Science, hereinafter referred to as the Academy.
Sec. 2. Purposes. The purpose of this organization shall be to increase scientific knowledge and aid in its diffusion, to encourage and support the scientific spirit, to promote cooperation among the scientific interests of Missouri, and to foster the education of its citizenry concerning the constructive role of science and technology in the improvement of the general welfare of our society.
Sec. 3. Assets. No part of the net earnings of the Academy shall inure to the benefits of, or be distributable to, its members, trustees, officers, or other private persons, except that the Academy shall be authorized to pay reasonable compensation for services rendered and to make payments and distributions in furtherance of the purposes set forth in Article Three hereof. No substantial part of the activities of the Academy shall be the carrying on of propaganda, or otherwise attempting to influence legislation, and the Academy shall not participate in or intervene in (including the publishing or distribution of statements) any political campaign on the behalf of any candidate for public office. Notwithstanding any other provision of these articles, the Academy shall not carry on any other activities not permitted to be carried on by an association exempt form Federal income tax under the provisions of the current Internal Revenue law and any similar laws in the State of Missouri.
Sec. 4. Dissolution. Upon the dissolution of the Academy, the Executive Committee shall, after paying or making provisions for the payment of all of the liabilities of the Academy, dispose of all of the assets of the Academy exclusively for the purposes of the Academy in such a manner, or to such organization or organizations organized and operated exclusively for educational, or/and scientific purposes as shall at the time qualify as an exempt organization or organizations under the provisions of the current Internal Revenue law and any similar laws in the State of Missouri, as the Board of Trustees shall determine. Any of such assets not so disposed of shall be disposed of by the court of common Pleas of the county in which the principal office of the Academy is then located, exclusively for such purposes or to such organization or organizations, as said Court shall determine, which are organized and operated exclusively for such purposes.
Article 2. Membership
Sec. 1. Eligibility. Membership shall be open to any individual or organization interested in the objectives of the Academy and who pays the current dues and meets the special requirements of the appropriate membership category.
Sec. 2. Privileges.
- (a) Individual members in good standing shall have the privilege of voting, holding office, offering papers for presentation at the annual meeting, and submitting papers for publication. Dues paying members shall receive all publications of the Academy issued during their membership period.
- (b) Institutions, Businesses, Corporations, and other Organizations holding Academy membership shall have the privilege of exhibiting at the annual meetings subject to the policies of the council. Such members may not vote or hold office.
Sec. 3. Categories of Membership. The membership of the Academy shall consist of the following categories:
- (a) Individual: Those persons that have paid the annual dues within the time limit specified shall be Individual Members. The classifications are determined by the Council.
- (b) Corporate: Those corporations, businesses, and/or organizations that have paid the annual dues within the time limit specified, shall be corporate members. The classifications are determined by the Council.
- (c) Student: Those people who are currently enrolled at least half time in any recognized elementary school, high school, college or university, and who have paid the annual dues within the time limit specified, shall be Student Members. Any application for student membership and any renewal thereof shall be endorsed by a member who knows the applicant to be a student.
- (d) Life: Those members, who shall pay, in one sum, an amount equal to twenty years annual dues, shall be declared Life Members by the Council; such members shall be exempt from further payment of dues.
- (e) Emeritus: Those persons who have been dues paying members for at least 15 years, or who have reached the age of 60 years, who have retired from regular gainful occupation because of age and/or disability, and who have formally petitioned and been approved by the Council to be granted this membership status, shall be Emeritus Members. Emeritus Members are exempt from dues.
- (f) Honorary. A person of scientific eminence, whether a member of the Academy of not, may be elected an Honorary Member of the Academy by the Council on the basis of distinguished service to science. The person should be a past or present resident of Missouri. Honorary members shall have all the privileges accorded to other members.
- (g) Institutional: A college or university that has paid the annual dues within the time limit specified shall be an Institutional Member. This membership will permit the undergraduate students of that institution to participate in the activities of the Senior Division. Any elementary or secondary school may also become an Institutional Member, with the same privileges.
- (h) Affiliate: Any local, state-wide, or section of a national organization or other not-for-profit scientific institutions (excluding organizations that are eligible for institutional membership) that have similar purposes to that of the Academy may, upon application, be elected an Affiliated Organization. Such Affiliated Organizations may be members of any division in the Academy and have a brief report of their annual meeting published.
Sec. 4. Expulsion. The Council shall have power, by majority vote, to expel from membership anyone who, in its opinion, uses his membership in a way that would damage the cause of science or the reputation of the Academy. No person shall be expelled without first being given a copy of the charges against him/her, and provided a fair opportunity to present his/her side of the case.
Article 3. Officers, Executive Committee and Council
Sec. 1. Elected Officers of this organization shall be the President, Past-President, President Elect, Vice President, Secretary, Treasure, and Historian. Any member who shall have been in good standing for three years and has been involved in the Missouri Academy of Science at the state level shall be eligible to hold office. Involvement at the state level should include, but is not limited to, serving as a section chair or serving on an Academy committee.
Sec. 2. Selection: Term of Office. The officers in the preceding section shall be elected in the manner set forth in the Bylaws. They shall assume their duties on July 1. The President, President Elect, Vice President shall serve for a term of one year or until their successors shall have been elected. The Secretary, Treasurer, and the Historian shall each serve for a term of three (3) years.
Sec. 3. Duties of the President. The President shall preside at meetings of the Academy, of the Council, and of the Executive Committee; shall have power to make or withdraw appointments, subject to approval of the Executive Committee; shall be an ex-officio member of all committees; shall issue the calls to Academy meetings, as approved by the Executive Committee, shall have other such powers and duties as are usually assigned to this office or as are specified elsewhere in this Constitution and Bylaws. In the event of temporary absence, incapacitation, or death of the President, the duties shall be performed by the first available person in the following order: President Elect, Immediate Past President, Vice President, Secretary, or Treasurer.
Sec. 4. Duties of the President Elect. The President Elect shall assume the duties of the President at the request of the President or in the absence or incapacity of the President; shall succeed the President at the termination of the latter’s term; chair the Past President’s Committee; serve as an ex-officio member of all committees; keep informed about affairs of the Academy, and be prepared to perform such services as the Academy requires.
Sec. 5. Duties of the Vice President. The Vice President shall succeed the President Elect at the termination of the latter’s term; be responsible for developing and coordinating the Senior Division program and submitting it for publication for the annual meeting; serve on the Local Arrangements Committee; and be prepared to perform such services as the Academy requires.
Sec. 6. Duties of the Secretary. The Secretary shall keep the records of the proceedings of the Academy, of the Council, and of the Executive Committee and shall perform such other duties as are usually performed by a secretary.
Sec. 7. Duties of the Treasurer. The Treasurer shall make quarterly and annual report to the Council pertaining to the financial status of the Academy; chair the Finance Committee; perform such other duties as are assigned him/her by this Constitution and Bylaws.
Sec. 8. Duties of the Historian. The Historian shall compile a set of all academy publications; record the activities of the annual meeting; note significant accomplishments of members and periodically publish these; keep a chronological record of Academy activies on a 3 year basis in a format acceptable for publication in the Transactions. The Historian shall perform such other duties as are usually performed by historians and that are in keeping with preserving the record of the Academy and the accomplishments of its members.
Sec. 9. Executive Committee. The President, President Elect, Vice President, Secretary, Treasurer, Immediate Past President, Historian, the State Directors of the Junior and Senior Divisions shall constitute the Executive Committee of the Academy. The Executive Committee shall:
- (a) Carry out the expressed wished of the Academy and shall have general supervision of the affairs of the Academy between Council meetings.
- (b) Authorize all expenditures of funds of the Academy by the Business Manager
- (c) Act on behalf of the Council in matters requiring urgent action, subject to subsequent Council ratification where appropriate.
- (d) Hire and fix the compensation and duties of Academy employees, subject to budget limitation.
- (e) Draft future plans for Council deliberation. Prior to the first Council meeting, consult with appropriate officers and chairs to develop a detailed program of goals and objectives for the coming year, this program, and rationale for it, to be presented to the Council for consideration, possible modification, and necessary action.
- (f) Allocate the custody of the property of the Academy.
- (g) Appoint a replacement for any officer other than the President who is unable to complete his term of office by virtue of resignation, disability, or death, unless otherwise stipulated by this Constitution and Bylaws.
- (h) Elect to membership those duly qualified persons as provided for in this Constitution and Bylaws.
Sec. 10. Council. The deliberative assembly of the Academy shall be known as the Council, which shall consist of the members of the Executive Committee, Associate Directors of the Junior Divisions, Councilors-at-large, the Co-Directors of the Junior Division Districts, the Chairpersons of all active standing committees, and Chairpersons of the Senior Division Sections. The Council shall manage the affairs of the Academy and shall be responsible for the general planning, policies, and programs for all Academy activities. The Council shall have the power to remove from or appoint to office the Editor for the Transactions. The Council shall hold at least two (2) meetings annually. The Council may hold additional meetings on reasonable notice, upon call of the President.
Sec. 11. Councilors-At-Large. Each President shall, at the beginning of his term of office, have the authority to appoint two members in good standing to serve on the Council for a three year term
Sec. 12. Section Chairpersons. Each section of the Senior Division shall elect a Chairperson who shall serve for a term of one to three years, or until a successor is chosen; shall have the power to invite, to accept, or reject papers for the annual meeting. In case any section shall fail to elect a chairperson, the Vice President may appoint a Chairperson or assume responsibility for arranging meetings of the section in question with power to invite and to accept or reject papers for presentation at the sectional meeting. A Co-Chairperson may be elected by each section.
Article 4. Business Manager
Sec. 1. Duties. The Business Manager shall supervise the central office and all business operations of the Academy, except those delegated to others by the Executive Committee; act as the Academy’s registered agent, receive and disburse all monies related to Academy business according to the policies established by the Executive Committee, furnish bond in such amount and by such company as the Executive Committee shall require with the expense of such bond to be paid by the Academy, and to enhance and extend the effectiveness of the Academy in attaining its goals. The Business Manager shall be an ex-officio non-voting member of the Executive Committee, the Council, and all standing committees. Specific duties may include, by mutual agreement:
- a) Prepare the agenda for each meeting of the Executive Committee or Council and send out notice of meetings.
- b) Assist the Finance Committee in the preparation of the budget of income and expenditures for the next fiscal year for presentation to the Council for approval or amendments.
- c) Prepare the federal and state income tax returns and maintain financial records.
- d) In cooperation with the Membership Committee, maintain accurate membership records.
- e) Coordinate the plans and arrangements for the annual meeting.
- f) Handle the distribution of publications of the Academy.
- g) Keep an inventory of Academy property and a record of the location of such property.
Article 5. Meetings
Sec. 1. Annual Meeting. Annual meeting shall be called each year by the President at such time and place as the Council shall designate.
Sec. 2. Other Meetings. Regional and Sectional Meetings shall be arranged by the Executive Committee and by the Section Chairpersons whenever feasible and desirable for the advancement of the purposes of the Academy.
Sec. 3. Affiliate Societies. Affiliate societies may meet in conjunction with the annual meeting of the Academy.
Article 6. Divisions of the Academy
The Missouri Academy of Science shall consist of a Junior Division and a Senior Division, whose
organization and operations shall satisfy the following provisions.
Sec. 1. The Missouri Junior Academy of Science shall constitute the Junior Division of the Missouri Academy of Science.
Sec. 1a. The Junior Division shall be subject to the Constitution and Bylaws of the Academy, but it has the delegated authority to establish those operational bylaws that it may require for its organization and operation. No bylaws may be established which are in conflict with those of the Academy.
Sec. 1b. Members of the Missouri Junior Division are eligible for student membership in the Missouri Academy of Science, and are encouraged to initiate and maintain such an affiliation.
Sec. 1c. The Junior Division shall hold its annual meeting in conjunction with that of the Missouri Academy of Science.
Sec. 2. The Senior Division shall be organized according to Sections devoted to the interests of a special science or group of sciences, or of a teaching group or other similar group with common interests, subject to the approval of the Council.
Sec. 2a. Formation of Sections. Any ten members may petition to the Council requesting approval of the formation of a section devoted to their interests.
Sec. 2b. Dissolution of Sections. Any section that has not met with the Academy at its annual meeting for three successive years, or whose membership has been less than ten for two successive years, may be considered inactive, and terminated. This shall not prejudice consideration for reinstatement, which will require the procedure described in Section 3a.
Sec. 2c. Method of Joining. Any individual dues paying member of the Senior Division may belong to any section by notifying the Business Manager of the Academy, in writing, of his/her desire to be a member of such section.
Article 7. Affiliations
Sec. 1. Outside Affiliations. The Academy may become affiliated with other organizations of similar purpose, if such course is approved by the Council. Delegates to such affiliated organizations, when required, shall be appointed by the President.
Article 8. Amendments
Sec. 1. Amendments to the Constitution. This Constitution may be amended at any time by assent of two-thirds of the votes cast by the voting membership, provided that a copy of the proposed amendment, approved by a majority of the Council, has been sent to the voting membership at least thirty (30) days before the date of the vote.
Article 9. Bylaws
Sec. 1. Enabling Provisions. This Academy shall adopt such bylaws, not inconsistent with this
Constitution, as are necessary or desirable to aid in carrying on the business of this organization.
Article 1. Quorum
Sec. 1. At Academy Meetings. Ten members shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business at any meeting of the Academy.
Sec. 2. At Council Meetings. Eight members including at least five from the Executive Committee shall constitute a quorum of the Council.
Sec. 3. Executive Committee. A majority of the Executive Committee shall constitute a quorum.
Article 2. Finances
Sec. 1. Fiscal Year. The fiscal year of the Academy shall begin July 1 and extend through June 30 of the following year.
Sec. 2. Annual Dues. The annual dues charged members of the Academy including fees for the annual meeting, shall be determined by the Council.
Sec. 3. Non-Payment of Dues. Any member who becomes in arrears for dues for more than six (6) months, shall be considered to have resigned, and his/her name shall be dropped from the roll of members by the Secretary without further action, except that the member shall be given at least sixty (60) days notice before such action is taken. Members must be in good financial standing to present at the annual meeting.
Sec. 4. Special Assessments. No special assessments may be levied except by two-thirds vote at an annual meeting of the Academy, following recommendation by the Council. Non-payment of special assessments shall be subject to the same penalties as described for non-payment of dues.
Sec. 5. Funds of the Academy. Funds of the Academy shall be designated as Current Funds and Endowment Funds, and maintained in separate accounts.
- (a) Current funds shall include all dues of members, all receipts from publications, and all other funds received in the continuing operation of the Academy.
- (b) Endowment funds shall include all gifts and bequests received to further the objectives of the Academy whether or not restricted as to the use to be made of the principle and income, and such other funds as may be designated by the Council as Endowment Funds.
Article 3. Meeting
Sec. 1. Notice of Meetings. At least thirty (30) days notice of all meetings shall be given by the Business Manager to the members of the Academy.
Sec. 2. Requirements for Papers. No paper shall be given a place on the printed program of the annual meeting of the Academy unless the manuscript, or an abstract of it, is received by the deadline date established by the Vice President, except by special action of the Executive Committee. If an abstract is to be published in the Transactions, an abstract fee must be submitted.
Sec. 3. Time Limit on Papers. No paper shall be allotted more than fifteen minutes on any program of the Academy except by special action of the Executive Committee.
Sec. 4. Temporary Combining of Sections. The Vice President, in communication with the section chairpersons involved, shall have the power to arrange for the joint meeting of two or more sections in any case where the papers to be presented justify such action.
Sec. 5. Conflicts Forbidden. Section meetings shall not be permitted to conflict with announced general sessions of the Academy except by special action of the Council.
Article 4. Nomination and Election of Officers
Sec. 1. Nominations. The Nomination and Elections Committee shall nominate at least one member for each vacant office of the Academy. At the annual meeting, the President shall give opportunity for further nominations from the floor.
Sec. 2. Elections. All elections shall be carried out at the annual meeting, and a majority for the votes cast shall be necessary for election. In case more than two candidates are nominated, and none receive a majority vote on the first or second ballot, the name receiving the lowest number of votes shall be dropped from the list on the third ballot; and this procedure shall be repeated on successive ballots until one candidate receives a majority vote.
Article 5. Transaction of Business
Sec. 1. Order of Business. The following order of business is suggested for annual meetings:
- Call to order
- Reports of Officers: Announcements
- Report of Committees
- Unfinished Business
- New Business
- Election of Officers
The President shall have the power to vary from this order, at his/her direction.
Sec. 2. Parliamentary Authority. In points not covered in the Constitution and Bylaws, Robert’s Rules of Order shall be the authority in matters of procedure and order.
Article 6. Committees
Sec. 1. Standing Committees, listed in alphabetical order, shall be:
- Corporate Membership
- Grants, Fellowships, and Scholarships
- Individual Membership
- Institutional Membership
- Nominations and Elections
- Local Arrangements
- Past President Committee
- Public Information
- Recognition and Awards
- Science Talent
- Web Master
Unless otherwise specified, appointment of these committees shall be by the President, with the concurrences of the Executive Committee.
Sec. 2. The composition and duties of the Standing Committees of the Council are as follows:
- (a) Corporate Membership. This committee shall be composed of at least three members each serving for three years, one being appointed each year. The chair will be designated by the President. The committee shall develop and conduct at least annually, a membership drive to increase membership in this category and minimize attrition.
- (b) Finance. This committee shall be composed of a least three members each serving for three years, one being appointed each year, the chairs of the Corporate, Individual and Institution Memberships committees, and the chair of the Local Arrangements committee. The chair shall be the Treasurer. It shall recommend membership dues in all categories, annual budget, fees of attendees, participants and exhibitors at the annual meetings. The committee shall be advisory to the Council in all financial matters. It shall seek optimum return on Academy investments and income property and recommend specific expenditures. The committee shall examine the records of the Business Manager for the closing fiscal year, and shall report their findings to the Council.
- (c) Grants, Fellowships, and Scholarships. This committee shall be composed of at least three members each serving for three years, one being appointed each year. The Chair shall be designated by the President. This committee shall develop and disseminate the guidelines and procedures for awarding Grants, Fellowships, and Scholarships. Selection of the awardees shall be made by this committee with the approval of the Council. Income from the Endowment Fund and other sources may be used for this purpose.
- (d) Individual Membership. This committee shall be composed of at least three members each serving for three years, one being appointed each year. The chair will be designated by the President. The committee shall annually conduct a membership drive to increase membership and devise strategies to minimize attrition in all categories except corporate and institutional.
- (e) Institutional Membership. This committee shall be composed of at least three members each serving for three years, one being appointed each year. The chair will be designated by the President. The committee shall develop and conduct at least annually, a membership drive to increase membership in this category and minimize attrition.
- (f) Nominations and Elections. This committee shall be composed of at least three members each serving for three years, one being appointed each year; no more than one member may be a member of the Executive Committee; the chair shall be appointed by the President. The committee shall solicit nominations from the membership and nominate candidates for vacant offices for the annual elections. The committee shall gather biographical data on each candidate to be published at least 30 days prior to the annual meeting. It shall consult with the Executive Committee on potential candidates for interim appointments for vacated offices. It shall supervise the preparation of ballots and receive, count and disseminate to the President the results of all elections.
- (g) Local Arrangements. This committee shall be composed of the Vice President, an institutional representative, and all section Chairs. The President shall appoint an institutional representative to chair the committee. The Chair may appoint other members necessary for the proper functioning of the committee. This committee shall:
- develop general plans for the forthcoming annual meeting. It shall coordinate the technical program and symposia; prepare announcements, advertising, and the program agenda for publication;
- solicit exhibitors;
- recommend possible funding to the Council for invited speakers (Symposia, Senior Division, etc);
- provide information concerning hotels, motels, and other overnight facilities;
- evaluate the annual meeting no later than October 1 following the meeting and make recommendations for the next annual meeting;
- recommend to the Council sites for future annual meetings of the Academy; the Academy should have established at all times the sites for at least the next two years.
- (h) Past President Committee. This committee shall consist of at least six past presidents or members each serving three year terms, two being appointed each year; and the President Elect. The chair shall be the President Elect. This committee shall be responsible for the structural and functional aspects of the Academy standing committees. It shall recommend names to the President Elect for staffing yearly and unanticipated vacancies on these committees, giving consideration to: (1) balanced representation; (2) the number of committee and duties which a potential nominee is serving; (3) the principle of rotation of committee assignments; and (4) the responses from the membership to a periodic survey of member interests in and qualifications for service on a committee.
- (i) Publications. This committee shall be composed of at least three members each serving three year terms, one being appointed each year; Chair of the Finance committee; and the Editor of the Transactions. The chair shall be appointed by the President. This committee shall establish subscription prices, page charges, abstract fees, reprint costs and other policies for all publications. It may nominate individuals to fill vacant Editor or Associate Editor positions to the Council. It may negotiate contracts with libraries and other organizations with approval of the Council. It shall recommend to the Council and oversee a publication budget that is primarily to support publication of the Transactions.
- (j) Public Information. This Committee shall consist of at least three members each serving three year terms, one being appointed each year. The Chair shall be designated by the President. This committee shall conduct activities which will foster the public understanding of science through the various media. It shall also seek ways of increasing the visibility of the Academy and the Academy’s programs.
- (k) Recognition and Awards. This committee shall be composed of at least two Past Presidents and the Immediate Past President. Appointments will be made by the President. The Chair shall be the Immediate Past President. This committee shall implement procedures for recognition by the Academy of individuals or groups outstanding in attaining the objectives of the Academy. The committee shall develop and recommend to the Council the criteria to be used in selecting the awardees. The committee shall submit nominations to the Council for approval for the following awards: Outstanding Scientist of the Year, Fellows, and Honorary Members. It shall publicize the awards and solicit nominations from the membership annually.
- (l) Web Master. This committee shall be composed of a person with skills in composing and managing the official web page of the Missouri Academy of Science. The President shall designate a Web Master. This committee will be composed of a minimum of three members each serving a three-year term. These members will support the Web Master in the maintenance of the material on the official web page.
Sec. 3. Special Committees may be appointed, as necessary, by the President.
Sec. 4. Standing Committees may be established or declared inactive by approval of the Council.
Article 7. Publication
Sec. 1. There shall be a peer- reviewed journal, called Transactions, and a webpage.
- A) The webpage shall be a medium of communication with the membership, primarily for information of current interest. The material contained is not intended to be archival.
- B) The Transactions shall be an archival publication containing: (1) individual, peer reviewed papers contributed by members, (2) Proceedings of Symposia held under the auspices of the Academy and (3) Proceedings of other symposia and conferences whose organizers may petition the Academy to sponsor their publications as an issue of the Transactions.
Sec. 2. The webpage shall contain, but not be limited to, Academy, Council and Executive Committee transactions; listings of the names, addresses and phone numbers of all officers and Section Chairpersons, the official program of the annual meeting, communications of importance to the membership and communications of interest to specific sections. The Council shall have full authority and responsibility for the webpage.
Sec. 3. Transactions. So far as finances permit, the Academy shall publish a Transaction to appear at least annually. It shall contain the Constitution and Bylaws if these have been amended since the last annual meeting before publication. It shall publish the abstracts from the annual meeting if the appropriate fee has been paid. It shall publish also approved papers reporting the research of members where approval is obtained through a peer review system and, when deemed appropriate, proceedings of symposia. The Council shall have full authority and responsibility for establishment of editorial policy and shall appoint an editor of the Transactions to administer this policy and accomplish publication.
Sec. 4. Duties of the Editor of the Transactions. The Editor shall be responsible for the maintenance of scientific quality, management and publication of the Transactions of the Missouri Academy of Science. In general, the Editor will be obligated to implement the stated objectives of the Academy insofar as the publication of a learned, refereed journal contributes to those objectives. The Editor is an ex-officio member of the Publications Committee and will be responsible for reporting to the Council at the annual meeting. This report will also be published.
Sec. 5. Occasional Papers shall be published at irregular intervals, as need dictates. The Council shall have full authority and responsibility for establishment of an editorial policy, and shall appoint an Editor of the Occasional Papers to administer this policy and to accomplish publication.
Sec. 6. Ultimate authority and responsibility related to Academy publications resides with Council; however, the Council may delegate specific items of its authority to Publication Committee. The Publication Committee may, in turn, delegate specific aspects of its authority to the publication editors.
Article 8. Amendments
Sec. 1. Amendment to Bylaws. The Bylaws may be amended at any time by assent of two-thirds of the votes cast by the voting membership, provided that a copy of the proposed amendment, approved by a majority of the Council, has been sent to the voting membership at least thirty (30) days before the date of the vote.
As adopted the nineteenth day of May, 1934; amended the twenty-eighth day of April, 1972; the twenty-seventh day of April, 1973; the twenty-fifth days of April, 1975; the twenty-ninth day of April, 1977; the twenty-fourth day of April, 1982; the thirtieth day of April, 19 8 8; the twenty-second day of April, 1995 ; the twenty-sixth day of April, 2014; and the eighteenth day of April, 2015